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1- Glucosamin

C.T. Vangsness Jr., W. Spiker, J. Erickson: “A Review of Evidence-Based Medicine for Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate Use in Knee Osteoarthritis Arthroscopy”, 25 (2009), S. 86-94.

Bruyère, N. Burlet, P.D. Delmas, R. Rizzoli, C. Cooper, J.Y: “Reginster Evaluation of Symptomatic Slow-Acting Drugs in Osteoarthritis Using the GRADE System BMC Musculoskelet Disord”, 9 (2008), S. 3.

Abad Santos, D. Ochoa, A. García García: “Actualización de la eficacia de Condroitín Sulfato y Sulfato de Glucosamina en el Tratamiento de la Artrosis”. Actualidad en farmacología y terapéutica, 9 (2011), S. 97-108.

Zhang, R.W. Moskowitz, G. Nuki, S. Abramson, R.D. Altman, N. Arden: “Recommendations for the Management of Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis, Part I: Critical Appraisal of Existing Treatment Guidelines and Systematic Review of Current Research Evidence Osteoarthritis Cartilage”, 15 (2007), S. 981-1000.

Madhu K, Chanda K, Saji MJ: “Safety and efficacy of Curcuma longa extract in the treatment of painful knee osteoarthritis: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Inflammopharmacology”, 2013;21:129-36.

Vetter G” “Topical therapy of arthroses with glucosamines” (Dona 200)]. Munch Med Wochenschr 1969;111:1499-502.

Sobal G, Menzel J, Sinzinger H: “Optimal 99mTc radiolabeling and uptake of glucosamine sulfate by cartilage. A potential tracer for scintigraphic detection of osteoarthritis. Bioconjug Chem” 2009;20:1547-52.

Setnikar I, Giacchetti C, Zanolo G: “Pharmacokinetics of glucosamine in the dog and in man”. Arzneimittelforschung 1986;36:729-35.

Setnikar I, Cereda R, Pacini MA, Revel L: “Antireactive properties of glucosamine sulfate”. Arzneimittelforschung 1991;41:157-61.

Sumantran VN, Chandwaskar R, Joshi AK, Boddul S, Patwardhan B, Chopra A, Wagh UV: “The relationship between chondroprotective and antiinflammatory effects of Withania somnifera root and glucosamine sulphate on human osteoarthritic cartilage in vitro”. Phytother Res 2008;22:1342-8.

Setnikar I, Pacini MA, Revel L: “Antiarthritic effects of glucosamine sulfate studied in animal models”. Arzneimittelforschung 1991;41:542-Xu HT, Chen Y, Chen LK, Li JY, Zhang W, Wu B. [Effect of various intervention factors on MMP-3 and TIMP-1 level in synovial fluid in knee joints with osteroarthritis]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2008;33:47-52.[/vc_column_text][vc_separator][vc_column_text]

2- Haifischknorpel

Ane W and Milner M: “A comparison of shark cartilage and bovine cartilage”. Townsend Lett 1996;153:40-42.

Prudden JF: “Cartilage as therapy. Adjuvant Nutrition in Cancer Treatment Symposium”, Tampa, Florida (September 27-30, 1995).

Zhuang, L, Wang, B, Shivji, G, and et al: “AE-941, a novel inhibitor of angiogenesis has significant anti-inflammatory effect on contact hypersensitivity”. J Invest Derm 1997;108:633.

Turcotte P: “Phase I dose escalation study of AE-941, an antiangiogenic agent, in age-related macular degeneration patient”. Retina Society Conference (Hawaii, December 2, 1999).

Saunder DN: “Angiogenesis antagonist as treatment for psoriasis: Phase I clinical trial results with AE-941”. American Academy of Dermatology Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, March 19-24, 1999.[/vc_column_text][vc_separator][vc_column_text]

3- Chondroitin

Abad F, Ochoa Dy García AG:  “Actualización de la eficacia de condroitín sulfato y sulfato de glucosamina en el tratamiento de la artrosis”. Actualidad en Farmacología y Terapéutica; volumen 9 nº2, 2011.

Huskisson E: “Glucosamine and Chondroitin for Osteoarthritis”. Journal of International Medical Research 36(6):1161-1179, Nov 2008.

Bedar M: “ Alternative Medicine: Glucosamine”, Can Pharm J. 2000. 133(5): 22-23. I

LaValle, H: “Natural Therapeutics Pocket Guide” (2000-2001),  First Edition. Lexi-Comp, Inc. Ohio, U.S.A.

Rehman Q y Kane N: “Gettin control of Osteoartritis pain: an update on treatment options”, Postgrad Med. 1999, 106 (4) 127-134.

Thakral, U.K. Debnath, C. Dent: “Role of glucosamine in osteoarthritis” Current Orthopaedics (2007) 21, 386–389.

Nicolás Giordano, Antonella Fioravanti, Panagiotis Papakostas: “The Efficacy and Tolerability of Glucosamine Sulfate in the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial”, Current Therapeutic Research Band 70, Nr.r 3, Juni 2009.

Andrew L. Sherman, Germán Ojeda-Correal, José Mena: “Use of Glucosamine and Chondroitin in Persons With Osteoarthritis”, 2012 by the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Band. 4, S110-S116, Mai 2012.[/vc_column_text][vc_separator][vc_column_text]

4- Vitamin C

Basabe B: “Funciones de la vitamina C en el metabolismo del colágeno”. Rev. Cubana Alimento Nutra 2000; 14 (1):46-54.

Wilson LG: “The Clinical Definition of Scurvy and the Discovery of Vitamin C”, J Hist of Med. 1975; S. 40–60.

Challem, JJ, Taylor, EW: “Retroviruses, ascorbate, and mutations, in the evolution of Homo sapiens”. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 25(1):130-132.

Huang, J.; DB. Agus, CJ. Winfree, S. Kiss, WJ. Mack, RA. McTaggart, TF. Choudhri, LJ. Kim, J. Mocco, DJ. Pinsky, WD. FoX: “Dehydroascorbic acid, a blood-brain barrier transportable form of vitamin C, mediates potent cerebroprotection in experimental stroke”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98 (20): 11720-4.

Oyamada I, Bird TA, Peterkofsky B: “Decreased extracellular matrix production in scurvy involves a humoral factor other than ascorbate”. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1988;152:1490-6.

Oyamada I, Bird TA, Peterkofsky B: “Scorbutic and fasted guinea pigs sera contain an insulinlike growth factor I- reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan and collagen synthesis in chick embryo chondrocytes and adult human skin fibroblast”. Arch Biochem Biophys 1990;276:85-93.

Humbel RE: “Insulin-like growth factors I and II”. Eur J Biochem 1980;190:445-62.

Baxter RC: “Binding proteins for the insulin-like growth factors: structure, regulation and function”. Prog Growth Factor Res 1989;1:49-68.

Peterkofsky B: “Ascorbate requirement for hydroxylation and secretion of procollagen: relationship to inhibition of collagen synthesis in scurvy”. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:1135S-40S.

Peterkofsky B, Palka J, Wilson S, Takeda K, Shah V: “Elevated activity of low molecular weight insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins in sera of vitamin C-deficient and fasted guinea pigs”. Endocrinology 1991;128:1769-79.

Minotti G, Aust SD: “The requirement for iron (III) in the initiation of lipid peroxidation by iron (II) and hydrogen peroxide”. J Biol Chem 1986;262:1098-104.

Houglum KP, Brenner DA, Chojkier M: “Ascorbic acid stimulation of collagen biosynthesis independent of hydroxylation”. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:1141S-3S.

Harish P: “Vitamin C: newer insights into its biochemical functions”. Nutr Rev 1991;49(3):65-70.

Bates CJ, Prynne CJ, Levene CI: “Ascorbate-dependent difference in the hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesized by 3T6 fibroblast in culture”. Biochim. Biophys Acta 1972;278:610-6.

Ganta DR, McCarthy MB, Gronowicz GA: “Ascorbic acid alters collagen integrins in bone culture”. Endocrinology 1997;138 (9):3606-12.

Ronchetti IP, Quaglino D Jr, Bergamini G. Ascorbic acid and connective tissue. Subcell Biochem 1996;25:249-64.

Tsuchiya H, Bates CJ: “Ascorbic acid deficiency in guinea pigs: contrasting effects of tissue ascorbic acid depletion and of associated inanition on status indices related to collagen and vitamin D”. Br J Nutr 1994;72:745-52.[/vc_column_text][vc_separator][vc_column_text]

5- Calcium

Weaver CM, Heaney RP. Calcium. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. “Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease”. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999:141–155.

Brody T: “Nutritional Biochemistry”. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999.

Pearce SH, Thakker RV: “The calcium-sensing receptor: insights into extracellular calcium homeostasis in health and disease”. J Endocrinol. 1997; 154(3):371–378.

Bonithon-Kopp C, Kronborg O, Giacosa A, Rath U, Faivre J: “Calcium and fibre supplementation in prevention of colorectal adenoma recurrence: a randomised intervention trial”. European Cancer Prevention Organisation Study Group. Lancet. 2000; 356(9238):1300–1306.

Baron JA, Beach M, Mandel JS: “Calcium supplements and colorectal adenomas”. Polyp Prevention Study Group. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999; 889:138–145.

Dickson, A. G. y Goyet, C: “Handbook of method for the analysis of the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in sea water, version 2”. ORNL/CDIAC-74.

Devlin, T. M: 2004. “Bioquímica”, 4ª edición. Reverté, Barcelona. Combs, G: „The Vitamins“, page 161. Academic Press, 2008.

Zhao, Y: „Calcium bioavailability of calcium carbonate fortified soy milk is equivalent to cow’s milk in young women“, J. Nutr., 135(10):2379[/vc_column_text][vc_separator][vc_column_text]

6- Hyaluronsäure:

Murashita T, Nakayama Y, Hirano T, Ohashi S: “Aceleration of granulation tissue ingrowth by hyaluronic acid in artificial skin”. Br J Plast Surg 1996;49:58-63.

Doillon CJ, Silver FH: “Collagen based wound dressing effects of hyaluronic acid and fibronectin on wound healing”. Biomaterials 1986;7:3-8.

Trabuchi E, Preis Batuffaldi F, Baratti C, Montorsi W: “Topical treatment of experimental skin lesions in rats: macroscopic, microscopic and scanning electronmicroscopic evaluation of the healing process”. Int J Tissue React 1986;8: 533-44.

Abatangelo G, Martelli M, Vecchia P: “Healing of hyaluronic acid-enriched wounds: histological observations”. J Surg Res 1983;35:410-6.

Nakamura M, Sato N, Chikama TI, Hasegawa Y, Nishida T: “Hyaluronan facilitates corneal epithelial wound healing in diabetic rats”. Exp Eye Res 1997;64:1043-50.

Ortonne JP: “A controlled study of the activity of hialuronic acid in the treatment of venous leg ulcers”. J Dermatol Treatment 1996;7:75-81.

Liguori V, Guillemin C, Pesce GF, Mirimanoff RO, Bernier J: “Double-blind randomized clinical study comparing hyaluronic acid cream to placebo in patientes treated with radiotherapy”. Radiother oncol 1997;42:155-61.

Brown DM, Chung SH, Pasia EN, Khouri RK: “Treatment of avascular ulcers with cytokine-induced tissue generation and skin grafting”. Am J Surg 1996;171:247-50.

Oliveira Mazzetto Marcelo, Hirono Hotta Takami, Campi de Andrade Pizzo Renata: “Measurements of Jaw Movements and TMJ Pain Intensity in Patients Treated with GaAlAs Laser”. Braz Dent J 2010; 21(4):356-360.

Santana Santos Thiago, Rabello Piva Marta, Helena Ribeiro Maria, Azoubel Anunes Antonio, Rcoha Melo Auremir, Dias de Oriveira e Silva Emanuel: “Lasertherapy efficacy in temporomandibular disorders: controlstudy”. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2010; 76(3): 249-9.

Guarda-Nardini Luca, Manfredini Daniele, Ferronato Giuseppe: “Total temporomandibular joint replacement: A clinical case with a proposal for post-surgical rehabilitation. Journal of canio-maxilofacial surgery”, 2008; 36:403-409.

Kuettner, K. E. & Goldberg, V. M: “Osteoarthritic disorders”. Rosemont, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 1995. pp.21-5.

Meachim, G: “Articular cartilage lesions in osteo-arthritis of the femoral head”. J. Pathol., 107(3):199-210, 1972.

Mankin, H. J.; Dorfman, H.; Lippiello, L. & Zarins, A: “Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteo-arthritic human hips. II. Correlation of morphology with biochemical and metabolic data”. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am., 53(3):523-37, 1971.

Anderson, S. L.; Buchko, J. Z.; Taillon, M. R. & Ernst, M. A: “Chondrolysis of the glenohumeral joint after infusion of bupivacaine through an intra-articular pain pump catheter: a report of 18 cases”. Arthroscopy, 26(4):451-61, 2010.

Arrich, J.; Piribauer, F.; Mad, P.; Schimd, D.; Klaushofer, K. & Müllner, M: “ntra-articular hyaluronic acid for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: systematic review and meta-analysis”. CMAJ, 172(8):1039-43, 2005.[/vc_column_text][vc_separator][vc_column_text]

7- Teufelskralle

Alonso Jorge: “Tratado de Fitomedicina. Bases Clínicas y Farmacológicas”. Edic Isis. Buenos Aires. Argentinien.

“Catálogo de Plantas Medicinales”. Consejo General de Colegios Oficiales de Farmacéuticos, Madrid, 2003.

Laudahn D, Walper A: “Efficacy and tolerance of harpagophytum extract in patiens with chronic non-radicular back pain”. Phytother Res, 2001; 15: 621-4.

Pilar García-García: “Revista de Fitoterapia”, 2004; 4 (2): 155-156.

Crespo and Navarro: “La raíz de harpagofito en el tratamiento de afecciones reumáticas”. Revista de Fitoterapia 12(1): 5-14.

Akhtar and Haqqi: “Current nutraceuticals in the management of osteoarthritis: a review”. Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis 4(3): 181–207.

Parenti et al.: “ Involvement of the heme-oxygenase pathway in the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic activity of Harpagophytum procumbens in rats”. Molecules 20(9): 16758-69.

Haseeb: “Harpagoside suppresses IL-6 expression in primary human osteoarthritis chondrocytes”. DOI: 10.1002/jor.23262.

Georgiev: “Harpagoside: from Kalahari Desert to pharmacy shelf”. Phytochemistry 92:8-15.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]

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